Whitebark Pine Ecosystem Foundation (WPEF)

We are a science-based non-profit dedicated to counteracting the decline of whitebark pine and enhancing knowledge about the value of its ecosystems.


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Whitebark Pine Ecosystem Foundation
PO Box 17943
Missoula, Montana 59808

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Key References for Restoring Whitebark Pine

This is a list of references for land managers who want to obtain the most important publications for managing and restoring whitebark pine.  We have compiled a list of 32 important references that should provide an extensive background in whitebark pine restoration.

  1. Arno, S. F., and R. J. Hoff. 1989. Silvics of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis). USDA Forest Service General Technical Report INT-253. Read More
  2. Keane, R. E., D. F. Tomback, C. A. Aubry, A. D. Bower, E. M. Campbell, C. L. Cripps, M. B. Jenkins, M. F. Mahalovich, M. Manning, S. T. McKinney, M. P. Murray, D. L. Perkins, D. P. Reinhart, C. Ryan, A. W. Schoettle, and C. M. Smith. 2012. A range-wide restoration strategy for whitebark pine forests. General Techical Report RMRS-GTR-279, USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, Colorado. Read More
  3. Tomback, D.F., Arno, S.F. and Keane, R.E. 2001. Whitebark Pine Communities – Ecology and Restoration. Island Press. 440 pp. Read More
  4. Keane, R. E. and R. A. Parsons. 2010. A management guide to ecosystem restoration treatments: Whitebark pine forests of the Northern Rocky Mountains. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-232, USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO Read More
  5. Schmidt, W.C. and K. J. MacDonald, compilers. 1990. Proceedings–Symposium on Whitebark Pine Ecosystems: Ecology and Management of a High-Mountain Resource. Bozeman, Montana, USA 29–31 March 1989. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report INT-270. Read More
  6. McCaughey, W., G. L. Scott, and K. L. Izlar. 2009. Whitebark pine planting guidelines. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 24:163-166. Read More
  7. Lorenz, T. J., C. Aubry, and R. Shoal. 2008. A review of the literature on seed fate in whitebark pine and the life history traits of Clark’s Nutcracker and pine squirrels. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-742, USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR. Read More
  8. Mahalovich M.F., Dickerson, G.A., 2004. Whitebark pine genetic restoration program for the Intermountain West (United States).  IUFRO Working Party 2.02.15 Breeding and genetic resources of five-needle pines:  growth, adaptability and pest resistance, 23-27, July 2001, Medford, OR, USA.  USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO, USA, Proceedings RMRS-P-32, pp. 181-187. Read More
  9. Tomback, D. F. 1982. Foraging strategies of Clark’s Nutcracker. Living Bird 16:123-161.
  10. Keane, R.E., Tomback, D. F., Murray, M.P., & Smith, C.M. eds. 2011. The future of high-elevation, five-needle white pines in Western North America: Proceedings of the High Five Symposium. 28-30 June 2010; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-63. Fort Collins, CO: USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 376 p. Read More
  11. Morgan, P., S.C. Bunting, Robert E. Keane, and S. F. Arno. 1994. Fire ecology of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in the Rocky Mountains, USA. Pages 136-142 in Proceedings of the international symposium Subalpine stone pines and their environment: The status of our knowledge, St. Moritz, Switzerland. Read More
  12. Keane, R. E., L. M. Holsinger, M. F. Mahalovich, and D. F. Tomback. 2017. Evaluating future success of whitebark pine ecosystem restoration under climate change using simulation modeling. Restoration Ecology 25:220-233. Read More
  13. Mahalovich, M.F., Burr, K.E., Foushee, D.L., 2006. Whitebark pine germination, rust resistance and cold hardiness among seed sources in the Inland Northwest: Planting Strategies for Restoration.  In: National Proceedings:  Forest and Conservation Nursery Association; 2005 July 18-20; Park City, UT, USA.  RMRS-P-43.  Fort Collins, CO:  US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, pp. 91-101. Read More
  14. Lanner, R.M. 1985. Made for each other: Clark’s nutcracker and whitebark pine. California Academy of Sciences 38(3):31-35. Read More
  15. Barringer, L. E., D. F. Tomback, M. B. Wunder, and S. T. McKinney. 2012. Whitebark Pine Stand Condition, Tree Abundance, and Cone Production as Predictors of Visitation by Clark’s Nutcracker. PLoS ONE 7:e37663. Read More
  16. Tomback, D.F. 1998. Clark’s nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana). The Birds of North America 331:1-23. Read More
  17. Leirfallom, S., R. E. Keane, D. F. Tomback, and S. Dobrowski. 2015. The effects of seed source health on whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) regeneration density after wildfire. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 45:1597-1606. Read More
  18. Waring, K. M. and B. A. Goodrich. 2012. Artificial regeneration of five-needle pines of western North America: a survey of current practices and future needs. Tree Planters Notes 55:55-71. Read More
  19. Murray, M. P. 2007. Cone collecting techniques for whitebark pine. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 22:153-155. Read More
  20. Tomback, D. F. and P. Achuff. 2010. Blister rust and western forest biodiversity: ecology, values and outlook for white pines. Forest Pathology 40:186-225. Read More
  21. Hoff, R. J. 1992. How to recognize blister rust infection on whitebark pine. Research Note INT-406, USDA Forest Service Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT, USA. Read More
  22. Hansen, A., K. Ireland, K. Legg, R. Keane, E. Barge, M. Jenkins, and M. Pillet. 2016. Complex Challenges of Maintaining Whitebark Pine in Greater Yellowstone under Climate Change: A Call for Innovative Research, Management, and Policy Approaches. Forests 7:54. Read More
  23. Larson, E. R., S. Van de Gevel, and H. Grissino-Mayer. 2010. Variability in fire regimes of high-elevation whitebark pine communities, western Montana USA. Ecoscience 16:382-398. Read More
  24. Bower, A. D. and C. Aubry. 2009. Whitebark pine ex situ gene conservation for the Pacific Northwest Region. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Olympia, WA USA. Read More
  25. Kegley, S. and K. Gibson. 2004. Protecting whitebark pine trees from mountain pine beetle attack using verbenone. Forest Health Protection Report 04-8, USDA Forest Service Northern Region, Missoula, Montana USA.Read More
  26. Mahalovich, M. F., Kimsey, M. J., Fortin-Noreus, J. K., & Robbins, C. T. (2016). Isotopic heterogeneity in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) nuts across geographic, edaphic and climatic gradients in the Northern Rockies (USA). Forest Ecology and Management, 359, 174-189. Read More
  27. Smith, C., B. C. Wilson, S. Rasheed, R. C. Walker, T. Carolin, and B. Shepherd. 2008. Whitebark pine and white pine blister rust in the Rocky Mountains of Canada and northern Montana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38:982-995. Read More
  28. Podruzny, S., D. P. Reinhart, and D. J. Mattson. 1999. Fire, red squirrels, whitebark pine, and Yellowstone grizzly bears. Ursus 11:131-140. Read More
  29. Hutchins, H. E. 1994. Role of various animals in dispersal and establishment of whitebark pine in the Rocky Mountains, U.S.A. General Technical Report INT-GTR-309, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station Ogden,UT., USA, St. Moritz, Switzerland.
  30. Schwandt, J., H. Kearns, and J. W. Byler. 2013. Impacts of White Pine Blister Rust and Competition on Natural Whitebark Pine Regeneration in Northern Idaho 1995–2012. U.S Forest Service Department of Agriculture Forest Health and Protection, Missoula, Montana, USA. Report Number 13-09. Read More
  31. Hutchins, H. E. and R. M. Lanner. 1982. The central role of Clark’s Nutcracker in the dispersal and establishment of Whitebark pine. Oecologia 55:192-201. Read More
  32. Zambino, P. J. 2010. Biology and pathology of Ribes and their implications for management of white pine blister rust. Forest Pathology 40:264-291. Read More

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