Whitebark Pine Ecosystem Foundation (WPEF)

We are a science-based non-profit dedicated to counteracting the decline of whitebark pine and enhancing knowledge about the value of its ecosystems.

Contact

406-925-9545
[email protected]

Whitebark Pine Ecosystem Foundation
PO Box 17943
Missoula, Montana 59808

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The Magnificent Five-Needle White Pines

Western North America

Five-Needle White Pines pines play important functional roles in high-mountain ecosystems, with several acting as keystone and foundation species and thus providing both stability to ecosystems and fostering biodiversity. At least one High Five pine species is found in every high mountain region of the western U.S. and Canada, contributing a diversity of forest cover types . These pines are functional components of high-elevation ecosystems and provide ecosystem services directly benefitting humans. Collectively, they represent a large array of community types because they occur in association with many other forest trees and understory species. In addition, these pines contribute a unique aesthetic to high elevation forest ecosystems whether as multi-layered forests of tall, old growth trees, through the rare presence of millennium-aged trees growing solitarily or in small stands on remote slopes, as wind-battered, strip-barked survivors on harsh upper subalpine sites, or as mat-like, creeping krummholz growth forms under the harshest conditions at the highest treeline elevations.

Five-Needle White Pines

Meet the High Elevation Five-Needle White Pines

  1. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)
  2. Limber pine (Pinus flexilis)
  3. Southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) COMING SOON
  4. Foxtail pine (Pinus balfouriana)
  5. Rocky Mountain Bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata)
  6. Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva)

Other five-needle white pines of western North America

  1. Sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana)
  2. Western white pine (Pinus monticola)

Photos by Jeff Bisbee and Michael Kauffmann